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Research Fellows

李貞德

Jen-der Lee

Distinguished Research Fellow and Director

Education

Ph.D., Department of History, University of Washington, Seattle, U.S.A.

Areas of Research

Chinese Women's History, Gender and Medical History, Gender and Legal History

Part 1: Reflections on Research to Present

 

My approach has been to study medieval Chinese history from the perspective of gender, with particular emphasis on the interactions between law, medicine and women. Since being promoted to Research fellow in 2005, I have largely continued in this vein, while the scope of my research in both time and space has extended forwards and outwards.

My article “Women, Families and Gendered Society” (2019) presents a systematic analysis of medieval women’s history and was commissioned by Cambridge University Press for inclusion in The Cambridge History of China: Vol. II, The Six Dynasties.The piece begins with the story of a Northern Wei imperial daughter who was widowed twice before entering a Buddhist nunnery, then analyses the family status, social environment, and historical significance of women during the Wei, Jin, and Northern and Southern Dynasties through the lenses of ceremonial rites, law, medicine, religion, and politics. Besides synthesizing thirty years of my research on medieval Chinese women’s history, this chapter also brings in the aspect of medicine, so often neglected by history of the period in the past. This volume of The Cambridge History of China brings together the scholarship of more than thirty experts from around the world, and my contribution represents a highlight for both women’s history and Six Dynasties research. Responding to inquiries from curious co-authors and readers, I published “A Twice-Widowed Xianbei Princess” subsequently, which dealt specifically with the epitaph of the Northern Wei imperial daughter who opens the above-mentioned article, utilizing a particular case to elaborate on the social places and diverse choices of women in an era when religious fervor coincided with political upheaval.

A relatively complete picture of my research on gender and medicine in medieval China can be found in my 2008 monograph, A Women’s History of Medicine: Gender and Health Care in Early Imperial China. This book takes a comprehensive view of medical practice inside and outside the domestic sphere from the Han to the Tang and from the perspective of women’s participation in healthcare from cradle to grave. It was composed of my previously peer-reviewed journal articles, revised and accompanied by an introduction and a conclusion. Taking reproduction as a starting point, I describe the formation of Chinese gynecological knowledge and the gendered body view that emerged with it. I then extend the discussion to reveal societal judgements brought about by women’s participation as healthcare workers and the associated cultural implications. It was a pioneering work in the study of early imperial China and garnered affirmation from the academic community. Beneficial scholarly exchanges on the book subject later led to the publication of my 2015 article, “Gender, Medicine and Early Imperial China,” in which I further explore the duel perspectives of women as care givers and care receivers to argue that health care is a critical component to understanding the special characteristics of family and society of a given period. Historical research on gender and medicine enables us to study healthcare participants in socio-cultural context and breaks away from Whiggish historiography of science. Moreover, this approach goes beyond the traditional focus on chaste, talented or famous women of early imperial China, opening up new paths for gender history.

Indeed, the study of medical history, whether tackled from the perspective of gender or simply taking women as research subjects, continues to provide inspiration for my studies. For instance, while analyzing medical formulas for women’s disorders, I found that some materia medica kept appearing, which led me to investigate the phenomenon of gendering certain pharmaceutical ingredients. My 2017 article, “Essential Medicine for Women’: A Cultural History of Danggui in Traditional China,” was my first effort on this topic. It explains how the perception of danggui (now often rendered as Angelica sinensis) evolved from its traditional use as a pain killer to a sacred prescription in women’s medicine during the centuries when Chinese gynecology was gradually established. Recently, I have again delved into this topic, specifically the uses and implications of this common herb in Korean history. My upcoming article, “Historical Material of Danggui in Veritable Records of the Joseon Dynasty” (2020) discusses the transfer and transformation of medical knowledge through the lens of material culture. In addition, this reading of the global dissemination of gendered herbal pharmacology has also led me into the field of East Asian exchanges of gynecological knowledge and perceptions of women’s body. My 2018 article, “Histories of Menopause in Comparative Contexts” introduces the creation, translation and mixed application of the term “gengnian qi”(first coined to echo the term climacteric but is now often rendered as menopause) to provide a comparative background for investigating related ideas and practices in traditional China. Since historians have so far rarely worked on the subject, my article represents a pioneering work in the diachronic research on menopause and the treatment of middle-aged and elderly women in traditional Chinese medicine.

Gender is a research topic that receives international academic attention and is, along with its related fields of medical history and the history of the body, an important branch of ‘new history’. In the last several years, however, it has become apparent that age and seniority are influential factors in historical investigation, and this is especially true in studying Chinese women’s history. Hopefully, my recent research has not only moved a step forward in the history of women in medicine, but has also laid a preliminary foundation for the cultural history of the elderly in Chinese studies. In addition, in the process of engaging in cross-field and diachronic investigation, my research interest has extended beyond the scope of medieval history to explore the transformation in modern China and even comparisons with contemporary Taiwan.

I have used personal letters and church archives to study the American missionary Lillian Dickson’s work in Taiwan. An English version of this paper was commissioned and published in 2014 as “From Wife to Missionary: Lillian Dickson’s Medical Missions in Post-War Taiwan.” I also utilized her photographic records, and through comparison with biographies, film, and public television documentaries, composed an article in 2011 titled “Disease, Medicine and Culture in While it is Day: Lillian Dickson’s Taiwan,” which continued to examine the significance of gender in international health politics from the period of Japanese rule in Taiwan to the final days of the cold war. This preliminary success in crossing research boundaries encouraged me to explore the modern history of health education from the perspective of gender, and taking advantage of the opportunity to participate in joint projects, I published “Sex in School—Educating the Junior High Students in Early Republican China” in 2017. This paper brings together a large number of physiology and hygiene textbooks and analyzes the ways in which their rich textual and visual content are able to translate modern anatomy and endocrine science for their intended audience, admonishing young boys and girls to conform with the needs of a project to establish a new China in the first half of the 20th century. This article provides yet another example and tries to deepen the existing body of examination on hygienic modernity, and it also serves as a comparative background for my continuing research on sex education in Taiwan. For the latter purpose, I have so far presented a lecture on “Sex Education in Colonial Taiwan” (2016) and published an article “Sex and Reproduction in Physiology and Hygiene Textbooks of Post War Taiwan” (2013), both preparing the path for my upcoming work on A Century of Sex Education in Taiwan.

My research is rooted in medieval Chinese history but extends both forward and outward, a move that is also reflected in my explorations of gender in legal history. My small book, The Death of A Princess: Rediscovering the Legal History of Early Imperial China, published early in my career, describes how the moral principles of patriarchal family structure were codified in the period from the Han to the Tang Dynasties, as well as the intersectionality of ethnic culture, class interest, and gender difference at work. After its publication, the book received broad affirmation from the East Asian Studies community and continues to influence students at home and abroad. However, its argument centers around how the status of women was reflected in what we today define as penal law, barely touching on topics related to the modern sphere of civil law. My 2009 article “Women and Property in Early Imperial China” fills in this gap. Through evidence from recently excavated wooden and bamboo slips, accounts and narratives from received documents, as well as records of real estate institutions collected in official histories, this article discusses how women were able to obtain, retain, utilize, and allocate property (both movable and immovable) and analyzes the way in which marriage exerted influence on women’s property rights. Besides deepening our understanding of the economic lives of women in the medieval period, this research continues a dialogue with the gender equality movement today.

Because of my concerns for women’s roles and status in both history and historiography, I often reflect upon historians’ accomplishments and possible future research. In the “Introduction: Women, Gender and Historical Research” (2009) for the volume Series of New Chinese History: Gender History, I first analyze historians’ breakthroughs in the context of theoretical inspiration, the increase of known primary sources and the impact of contemporary socio-political changes. Later in “Women and Gender in History Theses and Dissertations of Taiwan” (2010), I further assess the pros and cons when young scholars try ardently to follow their predecessors to produce new work. Over the course of the past half century, women’s history has gradually shifted from a framework focusing on the narrative of victimization to one of the possibility of empowerment. Inspired by gender awareness, historians of law also began to ask the question, “who’s law?” and to evaluate women’s accessibility to the legal system. Nonetheless, as I point out in my 2012 article “Women and Gender in Recent Studies of Chinese Legal History,” taking the past twenty years of academic accomplishment as a whole, it is difficult to miss the fact that, in legal history writing, women continue to be portrayed mainly as victims, sometimes as the executors of violence, and only rarely as the plaintiffs of lawsuits. The vast majority of women in this body of research are the party that receives judgement, while a scarce few are on the side of giving judgement.

Women had few opportunities to participate in the investigation or trial of legal cases in traditional China, and we can only look for relevant information in the records of female rulers. The final chapter of my small book The Death of A Princess describes the complex implications of such a female ruler’s active role in legal proceedings in the medieval period, echoing the first chapter of the book, which includes some paragraphs to introduce women’s efforts in the legal movement to amend Taiwan’s family law. However, despite women’s growing access to the legal process in 20th century democracies, the majority of feminist scholarship in legal history today continues to revolve around inequalities in law and regulations, and rarely touches upon the gender and feminist positions of judges and prosecutors. My knowledge of traditional institutions and my concern for the present prompted me, over the past ten years, to collect archival records, oral testimony, and public as well as personal documents, culminating in my forthcoming work “Women Judges and Prosecutors in Taiwan: A History.” This long article dissects the emergence of and sharp increase of female legal professionals in Taiwan during the seventy years since the end of WWII; it examines these women’s education and training, career selection and preferences, diverse experiences in practicing law, and the significance, or non-existence, of feminist sentiment in their careers. As with my writing on the history of medicine described above, these efforts in legal history push boundaries and cross academic fields, opening up new ground for the history of law from the perspective of gender.

 

Part II: Directions for Future Research

 

In my future work, I will maintain the spirit of pushing boundaries and crossing academic fields, continuing my work on topics in medical and legal history from the perspective of gender. Specifically, I hope to complete three monographs: The Medical Cultural History of Danggui, The History of Women Judges and Prosecutors in Taiwan, and A Century of Sex Education in Taiwan.

First, I will discuss my work on danggui. In my investigations of the applications of danggui in China and East Asia, I noticed that late-nineteenth century sinologists from the West brought the herb back to Europe with them and promoted its use. From these samples, a German manufacturer made an extract and later produced a patent emmenagogue that was sold across Europe and America, even exporting it back to China. In the early twentieth century, this practice prompted Chinese pharmaceutical companies to make a competitive knock-off. After a visit to the historical archives of the German manufacturer, I obtained a large collection of documents, which enabled me to draft two conference papers: “Danggui and its German Connections” (2019) and “Danggui Crossing Borders in History” (2020). I will continue to research on this traditional materia medica in the future, analyzing the use, discourse, and related cultural implications of danggui in modern bio-medical contexts. There is an old saying that “shi fang jiu gui” (Danggui is included in nine out of ten medical recipes), and the herb was originally a very common prescription. However, the image of danggui evolved from the medicine used to ease Cao Cao’s headaches in the 3rd century to the prescription that the 16th century Li Shizhen called an essential treatment for women. Over the course of its dissemination to Europe and its return to China, the gendering of danggui became manifestly conspicuous. Tracing the history of this herb and producing a monograph on the subject will not only be a perfect demonstration of the aspect of gender in the history of traditional Chinese medicine, it will allow us to glimpse the unique implications of material culture amid the competitive interactions between East and West.

Next, I will address women judges and prosecutors. When the government of Republic of China moved to Taiwan after WWII, judges and prosecutors from the mainland also crossed the strait, allowing women legal professionals to emerge in Taiwan earlier than in other East Asian nations such as Japan and Korea. Uncovering and elucidating the past, present, and future of women judges and prosecutors in Taiwan opens a new horizon for the historical research of gender and the law and, furthermore, demonstrates Taiwan’s uniqueness in post-colonial East Asia. At present, besides the journal articles on this topic discussed above, I have also published a case study online entitled “Women, the Law, and a Gendered Case in 1950 Taiwan” (2018). In the future, I will continue to utilize writings and court records of women legal professionals I have collected in order to deepen my investigations and also to review the relevant state of the field in China, Japan, Korea, Europe, and America, trying to place this history in a world context.

Lastly, I will speak to the topic of sex education in Taiwan. A rich body of research exists on the history of modern school systems, and likewise, quite a number of articles and books have been published on women’s education from the Japanese colonial period to the present. However, few scholars have paid attention to the history of sex education in Taiwan, which demonstrates the constant interactive developments of gender, the body and the state. A preliminary survey shows that the youth was not able to access sex education in the colonial period due to Japanese imperial policy. Although the public school curriculum finally included sex related subjects in the post-war era, the pedagogical materials and methodologies were designed to harmonize with a resurgence of ethnonationalism and cold war politics. After the lifting of martial law in the late 20th century, however, Taiwanese society saw a series of movements regarding, in the early days, women’s rights and, more recently, same-sex marriage, all of which created debates on the scope and content of sex education in schools. Indeed, this topic embodies the dramatic and intense transformation of Taiwan in the long twentieth century, and deserves serious examinations by historians. Due to my awareness of traditional culture and my concerns of contemporary society, I have already begun a program of systematic research and published partial results. In the future, I will continue to collect sources and provide analysis, anticipating the day when I will complete a monograph that depicts a century of Taiwan in transition through the lens of sex education.

My research originates from the perspective of gender and, attempting to break through disciplinary demarcations, strives to locate a forward-looking path for the histories of gender, medicine, and law. Although, over the past few years, the object of my research has shifted from my early focus on medieval China to a much broader scope in both time and space, my primary goal remains unchanged: “To examine the borderline between nature and humanity, to understand the changes of past and present, and to offer historical interpretations of one’s own.” To this end, I have engaged in dialogue with scholars of different disciplines and have ardently helped disseminate my work and the achievements of other Taiwanese scholars to domestic and foreign audiences. I co-founded the Asian Society for the History of Medicine and held the post of secretary for eight years, doing my part to build a bridge between medical historians in Taiwan and rest of Asia. In more recent years, I have served as editor, associate editor, and a member of the editorial boards of several international sinology journals, offering perspectives and achievements of historians in Taiwan. My works are translated into foreign languages, and I have continued to participate in international projects and publications, all of which allows me to have lively intellectual exchanges with the scholarly communities of the world.

Reflecting back and looking forward, I cannot help but marvel at it all. “Knowledge knows no bounds, but one’s life is finite.” Try as we might to “rise early and retire late,” even “continuing to study in old age,” nevertheless “there are limits to one’s knowledge and experience,” and I hesitate to put pen to paper. We really cannot give up the fight, though! This is my most profound realization of late.

Dissertation
  1. “Women and Marriage in China during the Period of Disunion” (PhD diss., University of Washington, UMI, 1992).
Books
  1. The Death of a Princess: Rediscovering the Legal History of Early Imperial China (in Chinese)
    (a) Taipei: Sanmin shuju, 2001, 150pgs. 6th printing, 2012. 7th printing, 2018. 2nd revised ed., with a new foreword, 2021.
    (b) Simplified Chinese character version,Beijing: Shan-lien Publishing Co., 2008.
    (c) Japanese edition: Taishukan Publishing Co., 2009.
    (d) Korean edition: Praha Publishers, 2013.
    (e) Revised simplified Chinese character version, Beijing: Commercial Press, 2017.
  2. A Women’s History of Medicine: Gender and Health Care in Early Imperial China. Taipei: Sanmin shuju, 2008, 438pgs. 2nd printing, 2012. 2nd revised ed., with a new foreword, 2020. (in Chinese)
Journal Articles
  1. Family Ethics in Han Law,” Bulletin of the Society of Chinese History 19 (1987): 1-54, Taipei, Taiwan. (in Chinese)
  2. Conflict and Compromise between Legal Authority and Ethical Ideas: From the Perspectives of Revenge in Han Times,” Journal of Social Sciences and Philosophy, Sun Yat-sen Institute for Social Sciences and Philosophy, Academia Sinica 1.1 (1988): 359-408.
  3. The Life of Women in the Six Dynasties,” Journal of Women and Gender Studies, Women’s Research Program, National Taiwan University 4 (1993): 47-80.
  4. Women in Medieval Europe: A Bibliographical Review,” New History (Xinshixue) 4.2 (1993): 121-143. (in Chinese with English abstract)
  5. Women and Gender in Recent Studies of Chinese Religious History,” Research on Women in Modern Chinese History, Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica 2 (1994): 251-270. (in Chinese)
  6. Child Abandonment and Infanticide from Han to Sui,” Bulletin of The Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica 66.3 (1995): 747-812. (in Chinese with English abstract)
  7. Research on Chinese Women’s History in Post-war Taiwan 1945-1995,” New History (Xinshixue) 7.2 (1996): 139-179. (in Chinese with English abstract)
  8. Childbirth in Late Antiquity and Early Medieval China,” Bulletin of The Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica 67.3 (1996): 533-654. (in Chinese with English abstract)
  9. Reproductive Medicine in Late Antiquity and Early Medieval China—Gender Discourse and the Birth of Gynecology,” Bulletin of The Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica 68.2 (1997): 283-367. (in Chinese with English abstract)
  10. Wet-nurses in Late Antiquity and Early Medieval China,” Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica 70.2 (1999): 439-481. (in Chinese with English abstract)
  11. Women Healers in Late Antiquity and Early Medieval China,” Historical Inquiry, History Dept., National Taiwan University 23 (1999): pp. 123-156. (in Chinese with English abstract)
  12. Recent Works on Medical and Cultural History of the Body,” New History (Xinshixue) 10.4 (1999): 117-128. (in Chinese with English abstract)
  13. “Wet Nurses in Early Imperial China,” Nan Nü: Men, Women and Gender in Early and Imperial China 2.1 (2000): 1-39.
  14. Forbidden but Efficacious: Women's Body in Early Imperial Chinese Medicine,” New History (Xinshixue) 13.4 (2002): 1-36. (in Chinese with English abstract)
  15. “Re/producing Science, Violently,” Bulletin of the Harvard-Yenching Institute 1 (2003): 3-5.
  16. Readers Dis/Oriented in Historical Writings: Footnotes in the BIHP,” Disquisitions on the Past and Present (Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica,Taipei) 9 (2003): 36-50.
  17. “Gender and Medicine in Tang China,” Asia Major 16.2 (2003): 1-32.
  18. “‘Laughing Disorders’ and Medical Conceptualization of Joy in Early Imperial China,” Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica 75.1 (2004): 99-148. (in Chinese with English abstract)
  19. “‘The Origins of Women’s Disorders’ in Ishinpo and its Related Issues,” Tsinghua Journal of Chinese Studies 34.2 (2004): 479-511. (in Chinese with English abstract)
  20. The Past as a Foreign Country: Recent Research on Chinese Medical History in Taiwan,” Disquisitions on the Past and Present 11 (2004): 37-58.
  21. “The Caring and the Cared in Study of Chinese Women’s History,” Journal of Sichuan University (Social Sciences Edition) 137(2005.2): 86-93. (in Chinese)
  22. From Wife to Missionary: Lillian Dickson’s Medical Missions in Post-War Taiwan,” New History (Xinshixue) 16.2 (2005): 95-151. (in Chinese with English abstract)
  23. “Childbirth in Early Imperial China,” Nan Nü: Men, Women and Gender in China 7.2 (2005): 216-286.
  24. Women and Gender in History Theses and Dissertations of Taiwan,” New History (Xinshixue) 21.4 (2010): 203-237. (in Chinese with English abstract)
  25. Disease, Medicine and Culture in While it is Day: Lillian Dickson’s Taiwan,” Disquisitions on the Past and Present 23 (2011): 143-172. (in Chinese)
  26. Sex and Reproductin in ‘Physiology and Hygiene’ Textbooks of Post-War Taiwan,” Research on Women in Modern Chinese History  22 (2013): 65-125. (in Chinese)
  27. “From Wife to Missionary: Lillian Dickson's Medical Missions in Post-War Taiwan,” Journal for Cultural Interaction in East Asia 5 (Osaka: Kansai University, March 2014): 67-95.
  28. “Images, Material Culture and Medical History,” Chinese Medical Culture (Shanghai: Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine) 100 (2014.3): 72-77. (in Chinese)
  29. “Then China, Now Japan: Reading 'Women's Medicine' of Ishinpo in Different Contexts,” Korean trans. JI Hansol, EWHA SAHAK YEONGU 50 (Seoul: Ewha Womans University, 2015): 67-98.
  30. Introduction to the Special Issue on Disease, Medicine and Culture,” Chinese Studies 34.3 (2016.9): 1-7. (in Chinese)
  31. “‘Essential Medicine for Women’-A Cultural History of Danggui in Traditional China,” Bulletin of The Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica 88.3 (2017): 521-588. (in Chinese)
  32. “Histories of Menopause in Comparative Contexts,” New History 29.4 (2018.12): 179-223. (in Chinese)
  33. “Woman Judges and Prosecutors in Taiwan: A History,” Bulletin of The Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica 92.1 (2021.3):151-242. (in Chinese)
Book Chapters
  1. Women, Gender and Post-War Gazetteers in Taiwan,” in Proceedings of Past and Present of Post-War Gazetteers in Taiwan (Taipei: Institute of Taiwan History, Academia Sinica, 1999), pp. 329-345. (in Chinese)
  2. The Death of a Princess: Codifying Classical Family Ethics in Early Medieval China,” in Sherry Mou, ed., Presence and Presentation: Women in the Chinese Literati Tradition (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999), pp. 1-37.
  3. Eminent Women, Gender and Historiography,” in Jacob Wang, ed., Gender Relations Vol.2 (Taipei: Xingli chubanshe, 1999), pp. 1-16. (in Chinese)
  4. A Women’s History of Early Imperial China: Gender and Recent Studies on Ritual and Legal History from the Third Century B.C.E to the Tenth Century C.E.”(in Chinese)
    (a) Japanese edition: Chûgokû no rekishi seikai (The World of Chinese History) (Tokyo: Kyûkushuin, 2002), pp. 469-492.
    (b)Simplified Chinese edition: Zhongguo funushi douben(The Chinese women’s history reader) (Beijing: Peking University, 2011), pp. 28-48.
  5. Gender and Domestic Health Care in Early Imperial China,” in Huang Ko-wu, ed., Papers from the Third International Conference on Sinology: History Section: Gender and Medical History (Taipei: Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica, 2002), pp. 1-50. (in Chinese)
  6. “Gender and Medicine in Tang China,” in Deng Xiaonan, ed., Tang-Song Women in the Context of Historical studies (Shanghai: Cishu chubanshe, 2003), pp. 415-446. (in Chinese)
  7. Querelle des Femmes? Les Femmes jalouses et leur contrôle au début de la Chinemédiévale,” in Christine Nguyen Tri et Catherine Despeux, eds., Education et instruction en Chine III. Aux marges de l'orthodoxie, publications du Centre d'études chinoises de l'Inalco (Paris/Louvain: Peeters, 2004), pp. 67-97.
  8. Introduction,” with Angela KC Leung, in Women and Society (Beijing: Zhongguo dabaike chubanshe, 2005), pp. 1-10. (in Chinese)
  9. “Introduction,” in Gender, Body and Medicine (Taipei: Linking Publishing Co., 2008), pp. 1-8. (in Chinese)
  10. Introduction: Women, Gender and Historical Research,” in Series of New Chinese History: Gender History (Taipei: Linking Publishing Co., 2009), pp. 1-17. (in Chinese)
  11. “Women and Property in Early Imperial China,” in Jender LEE, ed., Series of New Chinese History: Gender History (Taipei: Linking Publishing co., 2009), pp. 191-238. (in Chinese)
  12. “Inspired by Images: Gender and Health Care in Early Imperial China,” in History Dept., Tsinghua University (Beijing) et al., eds., History Lectures of Tsinghua University Vol. 3 (Beijing: Shan-lien Publishing Co., 2011), pp. 76-90. (in Chinese)
  13. “Ishinpo and its Excerpts from Chanjing: A Japanese Medical Text as a Source for Chinese Women's History,” in Clara Wing-chung Ho, ed., Overt and Covert Treasures: Essays on Sources for Chinese Women's History (Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 2012), pp.185-215.
  14. Women and Gender in Recent Studies of Chinese Legal History,” in Clara Wing-chung Ho, ed., A New Look at Chinese History through the Lens of Gender (Beijing: Social Sciences Academic Press, 2012), pp. 24-30. (in Chinese)
  15. “Childbirth in Early Imperial China,” in T. J. Hinrichs and Linda L. Barnes, eds., Chinese Medicine and Healing: an Illustrated History (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013), pp. 73-75.
  16. Sex, Reproduction and Gender in ‘Physiology and Hygiene’ Textbooks of Early Twentieth Century China,” in Ping-yi Chu, ed., Hygiene and Medicine: Papers from the Fourth International Conference on Sinology (Taipei: Academia Sinica, 2013), pp. 101-155. (in Chinese)
  17. Crime and Punishment: the Case of Liu Hui in Weishu,” in Wendy Swartz, Robert F. Campany, Yang Lu and Jessey J.C. Choo, eds., Early Medieval China: A Sourcebook (New York: Columbia University Press, 2013), pp. 156-165.
  18. The Epitaph of a Third-Century Wet Nurse, Xu Yi,” in Wendy Swartz et al., eds., Early Medieval China: A Sourcebook (New York: Columbia University Press, 2013), pp. 458-467.
  19. “The World of Women Rulers in Early Medieval China,” Japanese trans., SUDO Mizuyo, in HAYAKAWA Noriyo, ed., Opening the History—Seeing the East Asian World through Women's History, Gender History (Tokyo: Ochanomizu bookstore, 2015), pp. 35-58.
  20. “Gender, Medicine and Medieval China,” in Series of New Chinese History: Medical History (Taipei: Linking Publishing Co., 2015), pp. 195-244. (in Chinese)
  21. “Sex in School: Educating the Junior High Students in Early Republican China,” in Angela Ki Che Leung and Izumi Nakayama, eds., Gender, Health and History in Modern East Asia (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2017), pp. 61-91.
  22. “Women, Families and Gendered Society,” in Albert Dien and Keith Knapp, eds., Cambridge History of China: Volume II, the Six Dynasties (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019), pp. 443-459.
  23. “A Twice-Widowed Xianbei Princess: Epitaph with Preface for the Great Enlightenment Temple Nun, Surnamed Yuan (Yuan Chuntuo元純陀475-529),” in Patricia Buckley Ebrey, Ping Yao, and Cong Ellen Zhang, eds., Chinese Funerary Biographies: An Anthology of Remembered Lives (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2019), pp. 39-46. 
  24. Polishing Our Jades from Stones of Other Mountains: An Introduction,” in Kohama Masako et al., eds., Buried Footprints: Introduction to Gender History in China, Yi Yao et al., trans. (Taipei: National Taiwan University Press, 2020), pp. xi-xxiii. Revised ed., with images, online essay on “History kám-á-tiàm,” 2021.01.08. (in Chinese)
  25. “A Twice-Widowed Xianbei Princess: Epitaph with Preface for the Great Enlightenment Temple Nun, Surnamed Yuan (Yuan Chuntuo 元純陀 475-529),” in Patricia Buckley Ebrey, Ping Yao, and Cong Ellen Zhang, eds., Chinese Funerary Biographies: An Anthology of Remembered Lives (Shanghai: Shanghai Classics Publishing House, 2021), pp. 19-25. (in Chinese)
  26. 리전더,〈여성의 필수 약재:경계를 넘나드는 당귀의 세계사〉[Jen-der Lee, “Essential Medicine for Women: Danggui Crossing Borders in History”], 최해별, 《질병 관리의 사회문화사: 일상생활에서 국가정책까지》[Choi Hae-byul ed., Socio-Cultural History of Disease Management: From Everyday Life to National Policy] (서울: 이화여자대학교출판문화원, 2021) [Seoul: Ewha Womans University Press Center], pp. 17-36. 
  27. “Reading Danggui in the Veritable Records of the Joseon Dynasty,” in Chen Ming, ed., Classical Oriental Medicine across the Border (Shanghai: Zhong Xi shuju, forthcoming in 2021). (in Chinese)
Book Editor
  1. Women and Society, in Research of Chinese History from Taiwan, edited volume with Angela KC Leung with “Introduction,” Beijing: Zhongguo dabaike chubanshe, 2005, 472pgs. (in Chinese)
  2. Gender, Body and Medicine, edited volume with “Introduction,” in Series of Medical History from the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica. (in Chinese)
    (a) Taipei: Linking, 2008, 433pages.
    (b) Simplified Chinese character version, Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 2012.
  3. Series of New Chinese History: Gender History, edited volume with “Introduction: Women, Gender and Historical Studies,” Taipei: Linking Publishing co., 2009. (in Chinese)
  4. Special Issue on Disease, Healing and Culture, Chinese Studies 34.3 (Taipei: Center for Chinese Studies, 2016.9). (in Chinese)
Conference Papers
  1. “The ‘Chinese Full-Text Databases’ at the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica,” paper presented at the Pacific Neighborhood Consortium Meeting, Computing Centre, Academia Sinica, Taipei, February 16-19, 1997.
  2. “Development of Humanities Computing at Academia Sinica,” with Kuan-chung Huang and Tseng-kuei Liu, paper presented at the Pacific Neighborhood Consortium Meeting, Computing Centre, Academia Sinica, Taipei, May 15-17, 1998.
  3. “Women and Reproduction in Traditional China,” paper presented at the Seventh International Interdisciplinary Congress on Women, University of Tromso, Norway, June 20-26, 1999.
  4. “Medical History and Gender in ancient China,” paper presented at the Workshop on Gender and Medicine, Institute of History, National Tsinghua University, May 27-28, 2000. (in Chinese)
  5. “Subjectivity of Conversation: a Gender Perspective,” presented at the 17th Annual Meeting of Chinese Cultural Studies: Conversations between Civilizations in a New Century, Harvard University, December 7, 2002. (in Chinese)
  6. “Pain Relief? Sex in Medical Discourse on Menstruation in Early Imperial China,” paper presented at the Annual Conference of Association of Asian Studies, March 27-30, 2003.
  7. “Historical Research on Menstruation Pain,” paper presented at the First STS Conference Seminar, Institute of History, National Tsinghua University, May 29-30, 2004. (in Chinese)
  8. “Practicing Medicine and Producing Art: Proposal for Historical Studies of Images and Medicine,” paper presented at Asian New Humanities Net 3th Annual Meeting, Chungli: National Central University and Taipei: Academia Sinica, June 12-15, 2006. (in Chinese)
  9. “Reflections on Laqueur with Chinese Materials,” paper presented at Radcliff Institute Seminar: Remaking Sex in Classical, Medieval and Early Modern Medicine, Cambridge, MA: September 8-9, 2006.
  10. “Teaching Chinese Women’s History in Post-martial Law Taiwan,” presented at Workshop on Teaching History, Beijing University, March 28-29, 2009. (in Chinese)
  11. “Sex and Reproduction in ‘Physiology and Hygiene’ Textbooks: Post-War Taiwan and Beyond,” paper presented at the International Conference on “The Making of ‘Asia’: Health and Gender,” the University of Hong Kong, March 9-10, 2012.
  12. “Toward an Anatomical Sexuality: Educating the Junior Highs in 20th Century Taiwan,” paper presented at the Workshop on Anatomical Modernity: Gender and Health in East Asia, the University of Hong Kong, June 3-4, 2013.
  13. “Danggui-from Pain Killer to Women’s Essential,” paper presented at the 9th International Congress on Traditional Asian Medicines, held in Kiel University, Germany, August 6-12, 2017.
  14. “Preface (1433), postscript (1633), and some selected prescriptions for women in the Hyangyak-jibseongbang (Standard Prescriptions of Local Botanicals),” presented at the Medicine and Healing Workshop, held in Cornell University, Ithaca, June 15-18, 2018.
  15. “Danggui and its German Connections—A Menstruation Drug at the Turn of the 20th Century,”  paper presented at the Workshop “Towards a Global History of Drugs,” held in Technische Universität Braunschweig, July 4-5, 2019.
  16. “Essential Medicine for Women: Danggui Crossing Borders in History,” paper presented at the International Conference on Medicine, Society and Culture: Cultural History of Disease and Treatment in East and West, held in Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea, January 15-16, 2020.
  17. “Eumenol—Merck’s Patent Emmenagogue and its Chinese Contexts (1896-1961)” co-authored with Chih-hung CHEN), paper presented at 26th International Congress of History of Science and Technology, held in Prague, online, July 25-31, 2021.
Other Writings
  1. “On ‘Feudalism’: Examples from the Western Zhou and Medieval Europe,” Newsletter for Teaching the Humanities and Social Sciences 1.1 (1990): 6-12. (in Chinese)
  2. Muya (pseudonym), “Boisterousness: Voices from a Wedding,” Cultural Monthly of Taipei County 35 (1993): 13-15. (in Chinese)
  3. Shengerzi (pseudonym), “Writing to Cousin Zhaodi on Begetting a Son,” Cultural Monthly of Taipei County 38 (1993): 27-28. (in Chinese)
  4. “Talking from Tales of Jealous Women,” Newsletter of Women and Gender Studies 3 (1994): 12-15. (in Chinese)
  5. “Women and Gender in Historical Teaching and Research,” in Xie Wolong, ed., Two Sexes, Culture and Society (Taipei: Xinli chubanshe, 1996), pp. 35-50. (in Chinese)
  6. “Introduction to the Scripta Sinica Database of IHP Academia Sinica,” with Jo-shui Chen, Newsletter for Chinese Society of Libraries 4.3 (1996): 4-10. (in Chinese)
  7. “Tseng Kueishiang: a Professional Career in Justice,” in International Federation of Women Lawyers Republic of China, ed., Bravo! Female Legal Professionists and their Lives (Taipei: Aquarius Publishing Co., 2010), pp. 47-76. (in Chinese)
  8. Such Talented Woman! Introduction to Isak Dinesen’s Out of Africa,” in Huang and Liu trans., Out of Africa, the Chinese edition (Taipei: Red Table Publishing. Co., 2013), pp. 15-19. (in Chinese)
  9. “Congratulating the One Hundred Issues of Forum in Women’s and Gender Studies,” Forum in Women’s and Gender Studies 100 (2014): 25-27. (in Chinese)
  10. Woman President, Women Rulers and a Preface Accepted under Condition,” online essay on “History kám-á-tiàm”, 2016.02.05. (in Chinese)
  11. Managing English Academic Journals in Non-English Speaking Countries,” online essay on “History kám-á-tiàm”, 2017.07.28; new ed., in Hsu Ya-hwei et al., eds., History kám-á-tiàm, vol. 1 (Taipei: Zuo’an wenhua, 2020), pp. 38-43. (in Chinese)
  12. Women, the Law, and a Highly Gendered Case from Sixty Years Ago,” online essay on “History kám-á-tiàm”, 2018.11.23. (in Chinese)
  13. A Premodern Historian Overwhelmed by Postmodern Archives,” online essay on “History kám-á-tiàm”, 2020.02.07. (in Chinese)
  14. “Foreword: Greetings from IHP, Academia Sinica,” in Signs of the Future: Divination in East Asia and Europe (Munich: German National Museum, 2020).
Book Reviews
  1. Review: Christopher N. L. Brooke, The Medieval Idea of Marriage,” New History (Xinshixue) 1.4 (1990): 163-168. (in Chinese)
  2. Review: Caroline Walker Bynum, Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women,” New History (Xinshixue) 3.4 (1992): 187-193. (in Chinese)
  3. Review: Anne Llewellyn Barstow, Witchcraze: A New History of the European Witch Hunts,” New History (Xinshixue) 10.3 (1999): 205-210. (in Chinese)
  4. Review: Clarissa W. Atkinson, The Oldest Vocation: Christian Motherhood in the Middle Ages,” New History (Xinshixue) 11.1 (2000): 201-208. (in Chinese)
  5. Review: Klapisch-Zuber, Christiane. Silences of the Middle Ages, in Georges Duby and Michelle Perrot, eds., A History of Women in the West, vol. II. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1992, x+575pp.,” Theories and Cultures: Newsletter of Western Historical Studies 3 (2001): 81-87. (in Chinese)
  6. Review: Robin Briggs, Witches and Neighbors: The Social and Cultural Context of European Witchcraft,” New History (Xinshixue) 13.2 (2002): 231-237. (in Chinese)
  7. Review: Mann, Susan and Yu-Yin Cheng (eds.), Under Confucian Eyes: Writings on Gender in Chinese History. Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 2001. xiii + 310 pp.,”  T’oung Pao 89.4/5 (2003): 486-490.
  8. “Review: Gail Hershatter, Dangerous Pleasures ; Prostitution and Modernity in Twentieth-century Shanghai,” China Times Book Review, 2005.03.06. (in Chinese)
  9. “Review: Chinese Visions of Family and State, 1915-1953. By Susan L. Glosser. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003, 275pp.,” Gender and Society 20.2 (2006): 288-289.

Education:
1982, B.A., Department of History, National Taiwan University
1985, M.A., Department of History, National Taiwan University
1992, Ph.D., Department of History, University of Washington, Seattle, U.S.A.

Current and Previous Positions:
1992.8-1998.2, Assistant Research Fellow, Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica
1998.2-2005.9, Associate Research Fellow, Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica
2005.9-2020.9, Research Fellow, Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica
2020.9- , Distinguished Research Fellow, Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica
2020.3- , Director, Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica
2005.9-2007.6, Head of Anthropology Division, Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica
2011.10-2016.10, Deputy Director, Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica

2001.1-2002.7, Coordinator, Research Group on the History of Health and Healing, Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica
2011.3.1-2019.2, Research Fellow, Joint Appointment, Research Center for Humanities and Social Sciences, Academia Sinica

1993.8-2006.2, Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of History, National Taiwan University
1994.8-2006.2, Adjunct Associate Professor, Institute of History, National Tsinghua University
2006.2-2007.7, Adjunct Professor, Institute of History, National Tsinghua University
2006.2- , Adjunct Professor, Department of History, National Taiwan University
2006.8-2012.7, 2015.8- , Professor, Joint Appointment, Department of History, National Taipei University
2007.8-2010.7, Professor and Director, Institute of History, National Tsinghua University
2010.9- , Professor, Joint Appointment, Institute of History, National Tsinghua University

2001.7-2008.6, Co-founder and Secretary, Asian Society for the History of Medicine
2002.8-2003.5, Visiting Scholar, Harvard-Yenching Institute, Harvard University
2003.8-2003.12, Visiting Scholar, International Research Center for Japanese Studies, Kyoto, Japan

1996.1-12, 2000.1-12, Editorial Board; 2001.1-12, Editor; 2012.4-2020.12, Chairperson, New History Journal (Xinshixue)
1996.8-2018.6, Editorial Board, Research on Women in Modern Chinese History, Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica
2004.1-2007.6, 2010.10-2016.10, 2016.10.27- , Editorial Board, Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica
2005.1-2011.12, Editorial Board, Nan Nü: Men, Women and Gender in China, Leiden, The Netherland
2009.5-2018.5, Editorial Board, Journal of Women's and Gender Studies, National Taiwan University
2010.8.1-2018.1.10, Editor; 2018.1- , Editorial Board, Asia Major, Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica
2012.5-2021.6, Editorial Board, Chinese Studies, Center for Chinese Studies, National Central Library
2013.8.1-2017.7.31, Editorial Board, Journal of Social Sciences and Philosophy, Research Center for Social Sciences and Humanities, Academia Sinica
2014.10.1- , Associate Editor, Studies in Chinese history (Japan)
2015.1-2023.12, Editorial Board, Journal of Chinese History (Cambridge UP)
2016.1.1-2019.12.31, Committee Member of Publication, Academia Sinica

  1. 1997-2001, Award for Academic Research, National Science Council
  2. 2001, Award for Academic Research of Young Scholars, Academia Sinica
  3. 2005, Zhu Kezhen Award for the History of Science, Technology and Medicine, sponsored by the Institute of the History of Natural Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences and awarded by the International Society for the History of East Asian Science, Technology and Medicine, held in Munich, Germany
  4. 2009, Academic Excellence Award, National Tsinghua University
  5. 2011, Outstanding Research Award, National Science Council
  6. 2011.2-2011.7, Award for Special Talents, National Sciences Council
  7. 2016.8-2019.7,  Outstanding Scholar Award, Foundation for the Advancement of Outstanding Scholarship
  8. 2017.9.28, 2020.11.11, Outstanding Teaching Award (Adjunct Faculty Members), National Taiwan University
  9. 2019, Academic Award of Ministry of Education
  10. 2021.3-2022.2, Lo Chia-luen International Sinology Chair, National Chengchi University
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