Conversation between Archaeology and History is remarkably the first collection of research articles on historical archaeology with a specific focus on Taiwan. The key difference between historical archaeology and prehistoric archaeology as fields of study is not merely the period of time being researched, but that the former confronts different archaeological data and frequently relies on different methodologies and cooperation across academic disciplines. This work, comprised of articles by researchers in both archaeology and history, is—as the title suggests—a dialogue between the two disciplines. Moreover, the historical archaeology approaches in this collection present the voices of ordinary/nameless peoples through the study of unearthed objects, other discovered phenomena, and related literature. Finally, the “historical archaeology of capitalism” has become a mainstream academic trend within this field, and Conversation between Archaeology and History, focusing on the 17th century, endeavors to be another step forward for this movement.